Annette Nay, PhD

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Understanding the Physiological Aspects of Weight-Loss
by Annette Nay, Ph.D.
Copyright 1997

Body malfunctions that can cause obesity. Some obesity is caused by thyroid malfunction (Harvard Medical School, 1992). The thyroid hormones regulate such functions as appetite and weight. When the hyperthyroid does not work properly, it causes weight gain and also makes it harder to loose weight. Sometimes it eliminates the person's ability to feel satiated after eating. This causes excessive eating and obesity. These problems can be eliminated by replacing the missing hormone through a pill form of the hormone gotten from a physician. Within 6 weeks of finding the correct dosage the body is acting normally (Schwartz, 1985). (See: Untreated Allergies causes Many Illness, Autoimmune Diseases, Hypothyroidism, Cancer and Ultimately, Death)

Other obese people may be able to trace their obesity to a neurochemical predisposition. A predisposition is generally caused from heavily abusing addictive foods. This type of abuse causes an elevation of psycho-stimulants in the brain. This results in an elevated mood change. Purposefully engaging in eating addictive foods continually can causes addiction (Lesieur & Blume, 1993; Sheppard 1993). Wheat, flour (carbohydrates), processed sugar, and fats are addictive substances when taken in mega doses continually (Shkurkin, 1994; Sheppard 1993; Streett, 1992).

Carbohydrates and sugar cause a rise in the insulin level of the blood. This also raises the serotonin, a natural mood upper in the brain. Mega doses of sugar and/or carbohydrates, overtime, usually cause the serotonin sites to slow production or close sites to regulate the amount of serotonin in the brain. When the body cuts back on serotonin production it reduces the amount of serotonin available in the body at any given time. The lack of enough serotonin in the brain causes slight to deep depression. To maintain a normal level of serotonin in the brain the individual must eat more sugar and/or carbohydrates to get out of depression and maintain a normal mood level. This causes a vicious cycle of addiction, physiologically (Nay, 1998). This is directly comparable to the cycle that is developed after excessive dopamine is released into the body from the use of alcohol. Excessive alcohol usage causes many of the dopamine sites to shut down. To get the natural high given by dopamine the alcoholic must drink more alcohol to get the same effect (Shkurkin, 1994; Sheppard 1993).

Studies have shown that the body engages in three cycles. The major part of acquisition time or when food is taken into the body occurs from noon to 8 P.M. Assimilation happens from 8 P.M. to 4 A.M. This is when the partially or fully digested food moves into the intestine to be distributed to meet the needs of the body. From 4 A.M. to noon the major part of elimination is taking place (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Although these activities tend to overlap, the major part of these activities happen during their allotted time sequence if allowed to do so. When people eat late at night they push the acquisition time into the assimilation period. The assimilation period overflows into elimination time. This cuts the elimination time short. This is the most important part having to do with weight loss. The body wants to get rid of the extra food it did not need, but it does not have the time to do so. It copes by storing the excess waste and toxins around the thighs, buttocks, and stomach. The storage can be seen as fatty rolls, cellulite, dark circles under the eyes, bloating, gray or balding hair, and nervous outbursts (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

People need to help their body facilitate these cycles. If people who want to loose weight eat proteins and starches in the morning they are cutting short the time that is needed to eliminate toxins and excess foods. The best way to help the body cope is to eat only fruit and vegetables in the morning until noon. Anything else cannot break down as quickly as fruit and vegetables can. Fruit and vegetables are completely broken down before it reaches the intestines. The wealth of water, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals that fresh fruit and vegetables contain help the body have most of what it needs to get through the morning using the least amount of the body's energy to process it. This allows more energy for an individual's day. It also allows the elimination cycle to be completed uninterrupted. Eating fruits and vegetables in this way also cleanses out all the stored up toxins and excess fat the body has been storing. This gives the individual a clean healthy system (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

The body is made up of many trace minerals. Most of these have been stripped from the land. The farmers are only putting potassium, nitrogen, and phosphate back into the land. Since foods no longer contain all the minerals people's bodies need it is necessary to add mineral supplements that the body can readily tear down so the intestines can use these nutrients. If it takes to long to breakdown some pill forms pass through the digestive system and are discarded as waste. Minerals obtained from plants and placed in a water suspension referred to as colloidal suspensions, are instantly usable to the body. Minerals gotten from plants are the only ones the body can assimilate. Most of the minerals we need are now non-existent because our lands are depleted of them with continual use. Colloidal mineral are now gotten from shale beds that once grew plants growing in mineral abundant earth. The plants are long gone but the compounds they formed from the minerals they consumed are still embedded in the shale layers. It is here where people can get the minerals their bodies need (Wallach, 1996; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Besides the minerals, people need amino acids, vitamins, and fatty acids to make the body function healthfully. Without these nutrients the body will be nutritionally deprived and succumb to disease (Wallach, 1996; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Minerals do not taste good so people often take the colloidal mineral with cup of fresh fruit juice. This may best be taken just before bedtime as the body is already processing and dissemination the vitamins and minerals out for the bodies repair. Also the stomach should be just about empty from food so the juice and minerals solution can pass undisturbed into the intestine to be used immediately (Wallach, 1996; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Fresh fruit approximately one hour to be processed and out of the system. Vegetables take about a half hour. Fruit and/or vegetable intake should quit a hour to an hour and a half before lunch. By eating fruit and/or vegetables in the morning most people find that they are eating about every hour to an hour and a half. It is good to take enough fruit and/or vegetables to last throughout the morning until lunch. Since fruit and vegetables are ready to eat, there is little or no preparation time involved. It is a convenient food to eat while driving to work or in the work place as needed (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

All fresh juices whether they are vegetable, fruit or a combination of the two shouldn't be depended on to take away hunger because of their ability to pass quickly through the system to the intestines. Hunger in the morning or evening after dinner can be satisfied by eating fruit or vegetables. These will not interfere with the elimination cycle at either times (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Fresh fruit juices can upset the sugar balance in the body if they are drunk quickly in large amounts. Unimpeded they enter the intestine almost as fast as they enter the stomach. People need to sip these type of drinks slowly so the fructose eventually enters the blood stream a little bit at a time. (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Dried fruits take and hour and a half to break down in the stomach. Dried fruits are concentrated fructose. They have also had many of the vitamins and enzymes destroyed during the heating process while drying. This means that dried fruit has a lot less benefit for the body. If people are trying to lose weight, dried fruit should be avoided. The concentrated fructose tends to cause people to overeat resulting in the intake of more calories than they need to curb their body's hunger (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

The avocado had been billed as a fatty food. It is high in fat but it is a fat that is readily used because it is a vegetable fat. It is suggest that because of its excessive fat that people do not eat more than a half of one per day (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Fruits and vegetables may be eaten in quantities large enough to stop the feelings of hunger. This does not mean eating until one is stuffed. People should eat until comfortably filled then stop until hunger occurs again (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

It is also important to eat uncooked vegetables and fruits. Cooking them kills the enzymes and many of the vitamins that the body needs. Fresh vegetables and fruits also contain a lot of water which the body needs to cleanse the body of toxins. Cooked fruits do not cleanse the body (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Meat should be eaten sparingly like a condiment. Meat takes six hours under optimum conditions to break down. This still takes a lot of energy that an individual could have used to help him or her have a energetic day (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Refined white sugar found in candy and baked goods, as well as vinegar cause the juices of the stomach to ferment. This slows food breakdown and causes the body to expend more energy to get the system back into working order to process the food (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

The consumption of milk and milk products have been pointed to as one of the major factors of obesity. It is also linked to the cause of many physical aliments of the body such as migraines, arthritis, allergies, lethargy, thyroid problems, ear infections, and heart disease (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Many people ingest milk products for calcium. The casein in milk products binds up the calcium so it is not easily usable by the body. The body has to expend more energy to liberate the calcium. Also the pasteurization and homogenization of milk degrades the calcium making it harder for our bodies to use.

The saturated fats found in full or partial fat milk products cause the body to expend more energy to break down the fat. Since the body tries to eliminate the need to expend energy it prefers to store saturated fats instead of burning them. Stored saturated fats from milk add to the problem of body fat adds to a person's body weight.

Usable calcium is found in large amounts in raw sesame seeds, green leafy vegetables, all raw nuts, seeds, figs, prunes, dates, kelp and dulse. A half a cup of raw nuts per day can alleviate splitting, breaking, and peeling nails and minor hair breakage or loss (Diamond & Diamond, 1985). Supplemental calcium through pill form or added to orange juice is also suggested to stop bone loss especially in women . Calcium supplements derived from oyster shell is not a good source of calcium because it is in a form that the body cannot use.

Five hours after people choose to use milk and milk products fruit should be used to cleanse the body. People should abstain from milk and milk products the next day so the body can get rid of the residue milk leaves in the intestine which limits nutrient intake (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

In conclusion, there are three main reasons why people are overweight or obese. First, milk and milk products have a element called casein. Casein causes large curds to form in the human stomach which are hard for the stomach to eliminate. Casein also forms a coating in the intestine which prevents nutrients from being absorbed. Poor absorption causes the body to feel hungry, and want more food and the weight gain cycle begins (Diamond & Diamond, 1985). This can be overcome by eating citrus fruit four hours after the milk product. Citrus fruits such oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and strawberries contain a lot of acid which is needed to cleanse the system after eating milk products.

Second, overweight or obese people tend usually eat to many fats and empty calories. This is usually due to eating foods that have not nutritive value. White sugar and highly refined junk foods supply little or nothing to keep the body from starving. After a person has eaten a whole bag of their favorite junk food the body still craves to have a meal to satisfy its nutritive needs. To lose weight the body needs to have its needs met. When it is satisfied there are no cravings for junk foods and sugar. Cravings only continue when there is a vitamin or mineral deficiency. This also occurs when a person is hooked on processed white sugar which begins a cycle of eating when not hungry (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

Third, The intake of these foods needs to stop by 8 P.M. or earlier so the assimilation and elimination periods can begin on time. Often people eat later than this which results in the body cutting elimination short. Then when people arise and eat a heavy breakfast this results in elimination cutting off to allow acquisition to start in earnest. This leaves the body with toxins and waste that it cannot get rid of properly so it gets stored as fat. When the amount of stored fat and poisons get out of hand the body is not only overweight or obese but is open to cancer, arthritis, and many other diseases (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

If a person wanted to loose weight quickly, s/he could eat fruit and vegetables in the morning until about an hour before noon. Then for lunch, at noon, and dinner, at 4 PM, the person could have a normal servings of foods needed for a well balanced diet with good protein. The person would probably be hungry about 8 PM. At this time s/he could eat fruit or vegetables as needed to keep hunger away. When eating is done in this manner the person is able to have 16 hours of elimination versus the normal amount of time of just 8 hours used to maintain the same body weight (Nay, 1998).

Another plan is to eat a snack at 4 PM and then dinner sometime before 8 PM. The earlier dinner is the longer elimination time is, the more weight is lost, healthfully.

The body requires good nutrition, daily to function properly. When it does not get it breaks down its own muscle to get the nutrients it needs. This is behavior is documented in anorexic people. The body tears apart the heart and other muscles to get the protein it needs to continue on until the body is eaten inside out (Diamond & Diamond, 1985; Balch & Balch; 1991; Nay, 1997).

When the body's needs are met the craving for food is normally gone. This limits fat intake. Fat intake is reduced to the level needed for the normal bodily functions to lose weight (Ornish, 1993; Balch & Balch, 1990; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

It's is necessary to consume at least two tablespoons of fats, daily, to keep the body working properly. These fats should not be from animal proteins or their by-products because they are insoluble. Insoluble fats are difficult to digest and tend to go into long term storage. Vegetable oils and olive oil are considered soluble fats and are more easily broken down and used by the body (Ornish, 1993; Bailey, 1991; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

The amount of fats and calories a person is intending to eat can be calculated before they are consumed. Weight can also be reduced by monitoring and maintaining a certain level of fats and calories for a individual age, body type, and activity level. An average person should eat 2,000 to 3,000 calories per day. Twenty percent (or 400 to 600 calories) of the 2,000-3,000 calories should be fat to help the body assimilate fat soluble vitamins and produce essential hormones. This is approximately 6-10 grams of fat (Ornish, 1993; Goor, 1990). Monitoring and maintaining a certain level of fats and calories is time consuming and sometimes difficult to do. When people eat the right foods at the proper time people do not have to monitor the fats and calories. The body monitors fats and calories by itself by taking what it needs and eliminating the rest. It generally takes two months to clean the body's system of all the stockpiled toxins. As this occurs, the stockpile of food storage deposited as bulges start to break down and are eliminated. People have been reporting losses of as much as a pound a day (Ornish, 1993; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

If people are eating appropriately with fruits and vegetables in the morning, a healthy balance from all the food groups for lunch and dinner, the body should not be giving out signals that it needs to binge or needs more food. Fresh foods should replace the processed foods that cause bingeing. These foods are not only healthy but delicious to most people, but each person is different physiologically (Ornish, 1993; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).

For some people, having only fruit or an increased amount of citrus fruit in the morning may cause diarrhea. Since each persons needs are different at different times, one should use the information put forward in this paper as a guide (Nay, 1993). They should also listen to the needs of their bodies. Often the body will state exactly what it needs. One needs only to listen (Schwartz, 1985). People must also realize that no one has all knowledge on this subject not even their doctor (Wallach, 1996).

People need to be careful to study out information on health and nutrition as it pertains to their health generally and them individually (Nay, 1993). Sometimes the only way people can find out for sure if a piece of knowledge is right for their bodies, at this time, is to study it out in their minds and then take it to their Higher Power, in prayer (Smith, 1981; Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. 1976; Nay, 1993). If the information is true for them at that time then they will receive a burning of the bosom. This is a warmth in the chest area that causes the individual to feel the information is good. Sometimes there is a peace that accompanies this warmth or perhaps the person receives only the peace and assurance that it is right. If what is asked is wrong, then there is a stupor of thought which causes the individual to forget the thing which is wrong. This way people can know the truth of all things as it applies to them or their family (Smith, 1981; Nay, 1993).

Many overweight or obese individuals try dieting without learning about and changing the problems that they have covered up with the food. Dieting alone causes the Yo-Yo Effect. This is a cycle where the weight is taken off and put back on over and over again (Ornish, 1993; Harvard Medical School, 1992; Schwartz, 1985). Dieting takes the weight off, but the weight soon returns with more weight is added (Ornish, 1993; Schwartz, 1985).

Strict diets can cause depression in predisposed women (Ornish, 1993; Harvard Medical School, 1992). Generally, ten out of two hundred individuals ever lose all the weight they set out to lose (Ornish, 1993; Schwartz, 1982).

A diet should not be so extreme that it causes malnutrition (Ornish, 1993; Balch & Balch, 1990). Malnutrition is one cause of obesity. When the essential nutrients are not present in the diet then fats are not easily or adequately burned. Starvation causes the set point, where the body begins to burn fats, to be set at a lower set point. This causes fat to be stored against starvation (Ornish, 1993; Schwartz, 1982).

Exercising regularly causes the set point to burn at a higher level (Bailey, 1991; Wolman, 1982). This causes more fats to breakdown. Exercise allows an obese person's body to act like a thin person's body, in that they can eat almost anything within reason and not gain weight.

Eating excessively causes the body to overwork to process excess fats and sugars. The body can only do this for so long before it becomes ill or gives up and breaks down (USDA, 1995; Ornish, 1993; Bailey, 1991; Balch & Balch, 1990; Davidson, 1990; Carron, 1982; Wolman, 1982; Reid, 1978). Obesity causes a multitude of mental and physical problems for obese people (USDA, 1995; Bailey, 1991; Balch & Balch, 1990; Davison , 1990; Carron, 1982; Wolman, 1982; Reid, 1978). Some of these are depression, overeating, and psychological problems (Balch & Balch, 1990).

Other problems are lumbar lordosis-pain and lack of sleep (Carron, 1982). Some get hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes (USDA, 1995; Davison , 1990) Others have poor circulation, gangrene, and amputation (Reid, 1978) Many are plagued with kidney trouble, high blood pressure, pregnancy complications, liver damage, glandular malfunctions, and malnutrition (Balch & Balch, 1990). Gallbladder disease, colon cancer, post menopausal breast cancer, and menstrual irregularities afflict others (Ornish, 1993; USDA, 1995). With all these health problems besetting obese people there is great likelihood for premature death (Wolman, 1982).

Over-weight and obese individuals have limited mobility which leads to less exercise, more fat being stored, and a greater susceptibility towards further obesity. Some try to overcompensate by using deprivation of food. Deprivation in dieting causes depression and possible bingeing. Instead of deprivation, people should eat balanced smaller meals (Bailey, 1991). They should listen to what their body is telling them it needs. This gives people permission to eat with moderation without guilt (Schwartz, 1985). This is not true for those who are physiologically addicted to food (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993). These individuals cannot eat sugar and starches in moderation because they need more and more to fee normal instead of depressed. Some individuals chose to binge and purge. If this behavior is continued, will lead to death (Sheppard, 1993).

A behavior that tends to cause obesity or overweight people is eating food too fast. Eating too fast causes people to overeat. This results in obesity because the food has not had time to reach the stomach to signal the person that s/he is full. By the time fullness is realized people have already overeaten (Schwartz, 1985).

The obese make a different type of fat than physically fit people. They can eat the same amount of fats and calories but it adds up to more stored fat. A regularly-exercised body treats fat differently than an unexercised body does. When cholesterol (fat) comes through the blood stream it enters the liver. The liver wraps strands of protein around the cholesterol so the body can use it. The fit body's liver grabs the cholesterol and quickly wraps many strands of protein around it. This forms HDL or high-density cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is easily used by the body (Bailey, 1991).

The unfit body's liver is too tired to do much with the cholesterol. It slowly wraps a few proteins strands around the cholesterol and sends it back into the blood stream. This cholesterol is called LDL or low-density cholesterol. LDLs are harder for the body to break down. LDL cholesterol is hard to get rid of. When the liver is finished with the cholesterol it sends it back into the blood stream to find a fat storage cell.

There are two enzyme systems within the fat cells; each with a different job to do. The first is a lypo-genesis enzyme. Its job is to capture LDLs or HDLs and glue them together so they are too big to get out of the storage cell. The second type of enzymeis the lypo-lysis. Its job is to unglue the cholesterol and release it for the body to use for energy. The exercised body has more lypo-lysis enzyme than lypo-genesis. The unexercised body has the opposite (Bailey, 1991.

When there are more enzymes binding cholesterol than those releasing it, the person has a lot of fat deposits. Once stored these deposits are difficult to release it for use. This is how the fat get fatter and the thin stay thin even though they eat the same kinds and amounts of foods (Bailey, 1991).

Obese or overweight people tend not to do aerobic exercise. The lack of aerobic exercise makes one more prone to being overweight or obese (Bailey, 1991). They have no external way to help the body burn fats. Fat burning exercise must have a sustained level of activity, an elevated rise in heart rate, and incorporate a large quantity of oxygen. Without all of these components the fat will not be burned. When a person cannot breath and carry on a conversation without panting, there is not enough oxygen in the body for the process of burning fat (Bailey, 1991).

The overweight or obese individual may not be exercising long enough to burn full fats instead of glycogen (Smith, 1988). Glycogen is a starch that is available to the body for instant energy. As exercise is sustained for longer periods of time, less glycogen is burned and more fat is used up. After thirty minutes of aerobic exercise, the body is burning all fat. Most exercise plans call for a thirty minute workout. Increasing the workout to forty-five minutes will allow fifteen minutes of full fat burning and greater weight loss.

High sugar, low or no-fat items cause problems for the obese consumers who are trying to loose weight (Nay, 1998). Food manufacturers have created a collection of low or no-fat foods to attract the health conscious consumer. These misleading foods lead consumers into thinking that no-fats foods can not hurt them or add weight. These foods substitute high sugar content to cover for lack of flavor due to the low or no-fat content.

Besides the fact that sugar changes the stomach's ability to breakdown foods appropriately due to the sugar causing fermentation, concentrated amounts of processed sugar has other deleterious affects on the body. White sugar has no nutritive vale left. White sugar was distilled from brown sugar. Brown sugar was distilled from molasses. Molasses came from sugar cane or sugar beets (Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1991). White sugar is an addictive chemical (Sheppard, 1993). Processed sugars such as white, powdered, brown, molasses, and even honey have had their chemical bonds broken down between their basic components. Processed sugars present as a simple potent sugar which is easily and quickly absorbed by the body.

These sugars causes the body to have a chemical high mentally. It results in a mood lifting high due to the sugar triggering dopamine to be released in the mind. Physically, the body has been given a massive dose of sugar that goes straight into the blood system. It is the bodies business to keep the body's blood sugar stabilized. The body injects a massive dose of insulin. Insulin tries to neutralize the sugar by acting as a downer. The sugars effect on the body is short lived and wears off. The effect of the insulin has greater staying power. It is there long after the sugar wears off. This causes another mood swing. This time the mood is one of depression. Physically the body experiences lethargy. This usually causes the individual to use sugar to feel better (Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1991).

Continued abuse of the body in this way causes physical and/or mental problems such diabetes and some bipolar disorders (Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1991).

The difference between fructose and processed sugars is that fructose still has its chemical bonds intact. This causes the body to take a longer period of time to break the different chemical bonds. As the body dissolves each type is releases a moderate amount of sugar over time. This gives energy to the body and slightly elevates mood (Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1991).

To get away from sugar craving, or sugar fits, individual's can use fructose, fruit's natural sugar, to mediate the effects of the processed sugar or sugar substitutes. Natural sugars are not as potent as the concentrated processed sugars or sugar substitutes. The lack of concentrated sweetness causes people to favor processed sugars or sugar substitutes offer fruit in sweetening food (Nay, 1998: Sheppard 1993).

After extended use of fruit and elimination of processed sugar or sugar substitutes from the diet, the body becomes more sensitive to the sweetness or the fruit. The fruits blandness gives way to enhanced sweetness as the effects of processed sugar dissipates from the body. The brain will usually register the withdrawal of the concentrated processed sugars as the fruit having increased in sweetness (Nay, 1998: Sheppard 1993).

The benefits of using fruit instead of processed sugars and sugar substitutes is that the body does not have to work so hard to control the mood high's and lows. The body is not addicted to the chemicals in processed sugar. This causes less chance of overworking the system which leads to body breakdown and illness (Rememington & Parent, 1983).

Chemical sugar substitutes are not good substitutes for processed sugar. They, like the processed sugars retard the bodies ability to lose weight. They stimulate the body's metabolism to crave more sweets (Baker & Baker, 1987; Rememington & Parent, 1983).

Fruit is a good substitute for the individual recovering from addictive physiological food behaviors. The different types of sugar found in fructose or fruit breaks down slowly and does not cause an extensive rise in the amount of sugar in the body like processed sugar does. Therefore it curbs the addictive craving for the chemicals that are broken down from the processed sugar. Since the fructose does not inject massive amounts of chemicals into the body causing the body to minimize or shut down production of the body's own chemical sites, in a round about way fructose encourages the body to manufacture its own chemicals to help the body fight off depression. This causes the addicted person to crave more to continue the high. The cravings for these chemicals are just as intense as if the addicted person had never quit abusing sugar.

Individuals who's additive behavior to sugar has not physiologically altered their body can also use fruit to control and conquer sugar cravings or the withdrawal effects of sugar (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).

Olestra, a sucrose polyester which is not digestible by the body, is Proctor and Gambles answer to weight conscious consumers who want to eat their cake, but not have to account for the calories or fat. Since a sucrose polyester cannot be broken down by the body, Proctor and Gamble are planning to use in their products so consumers will not be held accountable for the calories or the fat that results from eating too many calories. This way the consumer can eat more of their products without the worry of putting on extra weight. The problem is Olestra has been shown in many cases to cause great losses of blood carotenoids which naturally fight cancer, heart disease, and stroke. Daily, the body makes mutated cells that are considered to be cancerous. The body needs the blood carotenoids to destroy these faulty cells before a cancerous mass develops. Olestra also depletes the body of Vitamin A, D, E, and K. These are vitamins that the body needs to be healthy. Finally, it has a laxative effect on the body (Julian, 1996).

Generally overweight or obese people do not have enough liquids in their diet (Schwartz, 1985). The body needs at least eight cups of liquids each day to carry on the basic functions of the body (Medina, 1992). Any excess liquid helps break down fats. Without the daily minimum of water, the body has difficulty breaking down the fats in the diet and still meet the body's other water needs (Medina, 1992). Ten to twelve cups can literally flush fats from the body (Medina, 1992).

Slow steady weight loss is the best way to take off weight (Callahan & Perry, 1993). Slow weight loss helps the individuals learn how to keep their eating under control by learning how to deal with stresses in healthy ways instead of covering them up with food. These individuals learn to adapt their diet to help them stay trim the rest of their lives, not just for the short time they are on the diet. These individuals generally do not go back to the bad eating habits they had which led them to obesity and/or addiction (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).

A new eating habits have to replace the old ones in order for an individual to maintain the weight s/he wants. A person's relationship with food will take continuous attention the rest of his or her life to work out. People must always be on guard so they do not to fall back into old eating patterns (Sheppard, 1993; Wolman, 1982). Some feel they will be deprived of they control their diet enough to loose weight. The feeling of deprivation will depend on the individual's attitude. Binge foods with high sugar or fat content will have to be eliminated. Low fat and fructose content foods should be adopted for regular consumption through the individual's life for weight lose, maintenance, and good health. Physiological food addicted people should give up wheat products and food with any type of sugar for their entire lives. For the food abuser, consumption of binge foods will be discontinued until the weight goal is achieved. Thereafter binge foods will be regulated to maintain the weight loss (Sheppard, 1993; Davison, 1990).

For some people eating healthy foods like fruit is not healthy because it cause his or her psychological food addicted behaviors to manifest themselves. It may also be true that the psychological addict, under the care of a live-in facility, may be able to detox his or her body with fruit, eat appropriate food combinations and have the body begin once again to take care of itself while psychotropic drugs are experimented with to find the correct dosage to control the person's depression. This is highly speculative but a hope for the physiological food addicted (Nay, 1997).

Fat and sugar intake is related to weight loss. Excess fat and sugar is what makes people fat (Deutsch, 1971). Consumer advocates have made food manufactures list the fat and sugar content of their products on their labels. Labels must be read to learn the fat, sugar and calorie content. There are other ingredients that are in our foods such as preservatives and other chemicals that are really not good for us (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).

Most people eat too many fats. To help loose weight individuals must cut out excessive fats. Fats should constitute only twenty-one percent to thirty percent of all calories in the diet (Dunne, 1990; Goor, 1990). This fat is needed to carry vitamins and energy needed for basic body functions like heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and repair of the body (Dunne, 1990; Goor, 1990). Fats should be unsaturated vegetable fats not saturated animal fats (Dunne, 1990). No matter what the content of fat is in foods consumption should stop when the body is satiated (Schwartz, 1985).

There are a variety of low fat meats available. Baked skinless breast of chicken or turkey, luncheon meats such as turkey ham and turkey (95% or more fat free); extra lean hamburger, tuna in water, and different types of baked fish are good examples of meats that can be incorporated into a low-fat diet. Meat should be used in the diet as a condiment not the main course of the meal (Nay, 1998).

Most fruits and vegetables contain little or no fats. People can eat their fill of vegetables without being troubled with the fat or sugar content. (Mayo Clinic Committee, 1966). However, caution must be used in consumption of too much fruits. Eating more that is needed to stave off hunger will lead to weight-gain. Some fruits have high sugar content, and in the case of the avocado, a high fat content.

Wheat is one of the best sources of protein for most individuals. It stays with the body longer than processed white flour and keeps a person fuller with less fat than that of a lot of the other proteins. White flour is a derivative of wheat but has had most of the beneficial vitamins and protein removed through processing (Deutsch, 1971). Some bread manufactures try to replace the vitamin loss by adding vitamins to their produce. This does help, but white bread does not take long to break down and is soon gone leaving the individual hungry again. This is due to processing breaking down the molecules of the wheat so the body does not have to do much work to use it up (Deutsch, 1971). Wheat and processed flour triggers chemical's in the brain which when continually over stimulated can cause food addiction. Therefore, wheat and processed flour should not be used to an excess by people who are physiologically addicted (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).

Individuals that enjoy eggs in their diets must understand that the yolk of the egg is very fatty (Casale, 1975). If a person wants to have eggs they can substitute such products as Egg Beaters or products with only egg whites (Nay, 1998). Powdered egg white is also available for baking needs (Casale, 1975).

Low-fat food can gradually replace the full fat ones. This switch should be done gradually, an item at a time, without telling anyone in the residents. Healthy eating can become a way of life for everyone in the household. Some low-fat foods do not taste good. Learn what low-fat foods are liked and use them. Those that are not liked should be skipped. If those in the household are made to eat a diet of all low-fat foods, including the ones they do not like, they will come to associate low-fat foods with no flavor and will refuse to eat any of them (Nay, 1998, Sheppard, 1993).

People must conscientiously put flavor back into the recipes they have removed by reducing the sugar and/or fat content. For those that can have fruit in their diet, fresh fruit juices, or fruit chunks such as pineapple chunks or raisins can be added instead of sugar. Fresh fruit can add flavor to a lot of recipes. Fats and sour cream can be replaced with plain yogurt or water and still have the same effect of lending moisture and flavor to the recipe. Switching over to low-fat and lowered sugar content in foods will be healthier for everyone (Nay, 1993; Sheppard, 1993; Mycoskie, 1994).

One should train the body to eat in the morning instead of waiting until brunch. Waiting causes overeating, because there is a tendency to eat quickly to satisfy the hunger. In doing so the person is not cognizant of when hunger is satisfied as most of the food has not reached the stomach. Until the main meal is prepared, excessive hunger can be stifled by eating a small snack that is low fat, non-processed sugar item like fresh fruit (Spilner & Stanten, 1996).

Meal preparation time should not be any longer that fifteen minutes from the onset of hunger or a fruit or vegetable should be eaten to keep a person from piecing on the food as it is prepared. The desire to eat causes people to eat a meal's worth of food while preparing the meal. When the meal is finally prepared there is a tendency to eat that food also.

Major cooking preparations can be done ahead of the time the food is needed. The precooked food can be stored in bulk or dinner-size amounts in the freezer. For example, several chicken breasts can be baked at once with one's favorite spices or just plain. Skinless chicken breasts are to be used to cut down on the higher fat content that the brown meat and the skin of the chicken. After baking the chicken should be cooled to room temperature, then put it into freezer bags and frozen (Nay, 1998).

A weeks worth of potatoes can be oven baked with the chicken. The potatoes and chicken are finished cooking at the same time. The potatoes can be refrigerated until needed. In less than five minutes a cold potato can be quickly reheated in the microwave or pan-fried without grease for hash-browns. Putting together a salad, vegetable, and chicken, one has a complete meal (Nay, 1998).

Extra pasta can be cooked and stored for later. It should be rinsed, stirred, and drained to get out the starch. Starch causes the noodles to cling together. Do not use oil on the noodles, this adds to the fat content. If fat has not been part of the diet for the day then add olive oil or vegetable oils to keep the body lubricated. Extra pasta can be packed in meal-sized pieced and frozen. When hunger strikes, the frozen pasta can be cooked in the microwave until almost cooked. At that time a flavorful tomato sauce can be added on top of the pasta to be warmed. A spaghetti dinner takes less than less than five minutes, when done in this manner. The physiologically addicted person will have to check the labels on the tomato sauce. Most tomato sauces have sugar in them (Nay, 1998).

People must stop eating when they are satiated. Satiation can best be judged by placing proper portions of food on the plate, eating leisurely, tasting each mouthful until the hunger seems to be gone. Then it is difficult to tell of hunger is gone, take two more bites and stop eating whether the whole plate full of food is gone or not. When hunger is not present, people must learn to push themselves away from the table and put the food away or dispose of it (Schwartz, 1985). If a person does not have the ability to know when s/he is satiated due to a malfunctioning thyroid, the person will have to use normal servings kept to the correct size by measuring with a measuring cup (Nay 1998).

Some people find themselves waiting for hunger to happen so they can have a special meal they have planned. This is all right, as long as they are not obsessing over it (Schwartz, 1985).

REFERENCES

Bailey C. (1991). Fit or fat for the 90's. [Film]. CA: Pacific Art Video Publishing.

Balch J.F. & Balch P.A. (1990). Prescription for nutritional healing. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group Inc.

Carron, H., & McLaughlin, R. E. (1982). Management of low back pain. Massachusetts: John Wright PSG Inc.

Casale, J.T. (1997). The diet food finder. New York: R. R. Bowker Co.

Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (1990). Abnormal psychology. NY: John Wiely & Sons.

Dimond H., & Dimond M. (1985). Fit for life. NY, NY: Warner Books Inc.

Goor, R. (1990). The choose to lose diet: A food lover's guide to permanent weight loss. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Harvard Medical School, (1992). Biological factors. The Harvard Mental Health Letter, 9, 1-4.

Julian, S. (1996). Harvard pair issue warning of fake fat's health risks, Anchorage Daily News Anchorage, AK: Anchorage Daily News.

Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1993). Pathological gambling, eating disorders, and psychoactive substance use disorders. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 12, 89-102.

Mayo Clinic Committee of Dietetics (1966). Mayo clinic diet manual (3rd ed.) PA: Saunders Co.

Medina, J. (1992). It's a miracle. Unpublished manuscript.

Nay, A. (1998). Holistic Counseling for Weight-Loss. Unpublished Manuscript.

Nay, Blaine (2001). Ol' Buffalo Nutrition Page. www.nay.org/vitamins.htm.

Ornish, D. (1993). Eat More Weigh Less. NY, NY: Harper Collins Publisher.

Reid, W., & Pollock, J. G. (1978). The surgeon's management of gangrene. MD: University Park Press.

Rememington, D., Fisher, G., & Parent, E. (1983). How to lower your fat thermostat. Utah: Vitality House

Schwartz, B. (1985). Diets don't work (7th ed.). Houston, TX: Breakthru Publishing.

Sheppard, K. (1993) Food addiction. (2nd ed.). Dearfield Beach, FL: .Heath Communication, Inc.

Shkurkin, K. (1994, December). Master's class in Substance Abuse. Presented at University of La Verne: Elmendorf A.F.B., AK.

Smith, J. (1981). D&C 18:10, Doctrine and Covenants. Utah: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

Smith, K. (1988). Kathy smith's fat burning workout. Bernstein J. (Producer), Hay, S. (Director). [film]. CA: Fox Hills Video

Streett, B. (1992). Carbohydrate craving and addiction. The Counselor, Jan-Feb, 12-14.

Wallach, J. (1996) Dead doctors don't lie (tape). Scottsdale, Arizona: Benson Promotions.

Whitney, E., Cataldo, C., & Rolfes, S. (1991). Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. Saint Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Company.

Wolman, B. B. (1982). Psychological aspects of obesity: A handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.: NY.


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