Understanding the Physiological
Aspects of Weight-Loss
by Annette Nay, Ph.D.
Copyright © 1997
Body malfunctions that can cause obesity. Some obesity is caused by
thyroid malfunction (Harvard Medical School, 1992). The thyroid hormones
regulate such functions as appetite and weight. When the hyperthyroid
does not work properly, it causes weight gain and also makes it harder
to loose weight. Sometimes it eliminates the person's ability to feel
satiated after eating. This causes excessive eating and obesity. These
problems can be eliminated by replacing the missing hormone through a
pill form of the hormone gotten from a physician. Within 6 weeks of
finding the correct dosage the body is acting normally (Schwartz, 1985).
(See: Untreated Allergies
causes Many Illness, Autoimmune Diseases,
Hypothyroidism, Cancer and
Other obese people may be able to trace their obesity to a
neurochemical predisposition. A predisposition is generally caused from
heavily abusing addictive foods. This type of abuse causes an elevation
of psycho-stimulants in the brain. This results in an elevated mood
change. Purposefully engaging in eating addictive foods continually can
causes addiction (Lesieur & Blume, 1993; Sheppard 1993). Wheat, flour
(carbohydrates), processed sugar, and fats are addictive substances when
taken in mega doses continually (Shkurkin, 1994; Sheppard 1993; Streett,
Carbohydrates and sugar cause a rise in the insulin level of the
blood. This also raises the serotonin, a natural mood upper in the
brain. Mega doses of sugar and/or carbohydrates, overtime, usually cause
the serotonin sites to slow production or close sites to regulate the
amount of serotonin in the brain. When the body cuts back on serotonin
production it reduces the amount of serotonin available in the body at
any given time. The lack of enough serotonin in the brain causes slight
to deep depression. To maintain a normal level of serotonin in the brain
the individual must eat more sugar and/or carbohydrates to get out of
depression and maintain a normal mood level. This causes a vicious cycle
of addiction, physiologically (Nay, 1998). This is directly comparable
to the cycle that is developed after excessive dopamine is released into
the body from the use of alcohol. Excessive alcohol usage causes many of
the dopamine sites to shut down. To get the natural high given by
dopamine the alcoholic must drink more alcohol to get the same effect (Shkurkin,
1994; Sheppard 1993).
Studies have shown that the body engages in three cycles. The major
part of acquisition time or when food is taken into the body occurs from
noon to 8 P.M. Assimilation happens from 8 P.M. to 4 A.M. This is when
the partially or fully digested food moves into the intestine to be
distributed to meet the needs of the body. From 4 A.M. to noon the major
part of elimination is taking place (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Although these activities tend to overlap, the major part of these
activities happen during their allotted time sequence if allowed to do
so. When people eat late at night they push the acquisition time into
the assimilation period. The assimilation period overflows into
elimination time. This cuts the elimination time short. This is the most
important part having to do with weight loss. The body wants to get rid
of the extra food it did not need, but it does not have the time to do
so. It copes by storing the excess waste and toxins around the thighs,
buttocks, and stomach. The storage can be seen as fatty rolls,
cellulite, dark circles under the eyes, bloating, gray or balding hair,
and nervous outbursts (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
People need to help their body facilitate these cycles. If people who
want to loose weight eat proteins and starches in the morning they are
cutting short the time that is needed to eliminate toxins and excess
foods. The best way to help the body cope is to eat only fruit and
vegetables in the morning until noon. Anything else cannot break down as
quickly as fruit and vegetables can. Fruit and vegetables are completely
broken down before it reaches the intestines. The wealth of water,
enzymes, vitamins, and minerals that fresh fruit and vegetables contain
help the body have most of what it needs to get through the morning
using the least amount of the body's energy to process it. This allows
more energy for an individual's day. It also allows the elimination
cycle to be completed uninterrupted. Eating fruits and vegetables in
this way also cleanses out all the stored up toxins and excess fat the
body has been storing. This gives the individual a clean healthy system
(Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
The body is made up of many
Most of these have been stripped from the land. The farmers are only
putting potassium, nitrogen, and phosphate back into the land. Since
foods no longer contain all the minerals people's bodies need it is
necessary to add mineral supplements that the body can readily tear down
so the intestines can use these nutrients. If it takes to long to
breakdown some pill forms pass through the digestive system and are
discarded as waste. Minerals obtained from plants and placed in a water
suspension referred to as colloidal suspensions, are instantly usable to
the body. Minerals gotten from plants are the only ones the body can
assimilate. Most of the minerals we need are now non-existent because
our lands are depleted of them with continual use. Colloidal mineral are
now gotten from shale beds that once grew plants growing in mineral
abundant earth. The plants are long gone but the compounds they formed
from the minerals they consumed are still embedded in the shale layers.
It is here where people can get the minerals their bodies need (Wallach,
1996; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Besides the minerals, people need amino acids, vitamins, and fatty
acids to make the body function healthfully. Without these nutrients the
body will be nutritionally deprived and succumb to disease (Wallach,
1996; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Minerals do not taste good so people often take the colloidal mineral
with cup of fresh fruit juice. This may best be taken just before
bedtime as the body is already processing and dissemination the vitamins
and minerals out for the bodies repair. Also the stomach should be just
about empty from food so the juice and minerals solution can pass
undisturbed into the intestine to be used immediately (Wallach, 1996;
Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Fresh fruit approximately one hour to be processed and out of the
system. Vegetables take about a half hour. Fruit and/or vegetable intake
should quit a hour to an hour and a half before lunch. By eating fruit
and/or vegetables in the morning most people find that they are eating
about every hour to an hour and a half. It is good to take enough fruit
and/or vegetables to last throughout the morning until lunch. Since
fruit and vegetables are ready to eat, there is little or no preparation
time involved. It is a convenient food to eat while driving to work or
in the work place as needed (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
All fresh juices whether they are vegetable, fruit or a combination
of the two shouldn't be depended on to take away hunger because of their
ability to pass quickly through the system to the intestines. Hunger in
the morning or evening after dinner can be satisfied by eating fruit or
vegetables. These will not interfere with the elimination cycle at
either times (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Fresh fruit juices can upset the sugar balance in the body if they
are drunk quickly in large amounts. Unimpeded they enter the intestine
almost as fast as they enter the stomach. People need to sip these type
of drinks slowly so the fructose eventually enters the blood stream a
little bit at a time. (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Dried fruits take and hour and a half to break down in the stomach.
Dried fruits are concentrated fructose. They have also had many of the
vitamins and enzymes destroyed during the heating process while drying.
This means that dried fruit has a lot less benefit for the body. If
people are trying to lose weight, dried fruit should be avoided. The
concentrated fructose tends to cause people to overeat resulting in the
intake of more calories than they need to curb their body's hunger
(Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
The avocado had been billed as a fatty food. It is high in fat but it
is a fat that is readily used because it is a vegetable fat. It is
suggest that because of its excessive fat that people do not eat more
than a half of one per day (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Fruits and vegetables may be eaten in quantities large enough to stop
the feelings of hunger. This does not mean eating until one is stuffed.
People should eat until comfortably filled then stop until hunger occurs
again (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
It is also important to eat uncooked vegetables and fruits. Cooking
them kills the enzymes and many of the vitamins that the body needs.
Fresh vegetables and fruits also contain a lot of water which the body
needs to cleanse the body of toxins. Cooked fruits do not cleanse the
body (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Meat should be eaten sparingly like a condiment. Meat takes six hours
under optimum conditions to break down. This still takes a lot of energy
that an individual could have used to help him or her have a energetic
day (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Refined white sugar found in candy and baked goods, as well as
vinegar cause the juices of the stomach to ferment. This slows food
breakdown and causes the body to expend more energy to get the system
back into working order to process the food (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
The consumption of milk and milk products have been pointed to as one
of the major factors of obesity. It is also linked to the cause of many
physical aliments of the body such as migraines, arthritis, allergies,
lethargy, thyroid problems, ear infections, and heart disease (Diamond &
Many people ingest milk products for calcium. The casein in milk
products binds up the calcium so it is not easily usable by the body.
The body has to expend more energy to liberate the calcium. Also the
pasteurization and homogenization of milk degrades the calcium making it
harder for our bodies to use.
The saturated fats found in full or partial fat milk products cause
the body to expend more energy to break down the fat. Since the body
tries to eliminate the need to expend energy it prefers to store
saturated fats instead of burning them. Stored saturated fats from milk
add to the problem of body fat adds to a person's body weight.
Usable calcium is found in large amounts in raw sesame seeds, green
leafy vegetables, all raw nuts, seeds, figs, prunes, dates, kelp and
dulse. A half a cup of raw nuts per day can alleviate splitting,
breaking, and peeling nails and minor hair breakage or loss (Diamond &
Diamond, 1985). Supplemental calcium through pill form or added to
orange juice is also suggested to stop bone loss especially in women .
Calcium supplements derived from oyster shell is not a good source of
calcium because it is in a form that the body cannot use.
Five hours after people choose to use milk and milk products fruit
should be used to cleanse the body. People should abstain from milk and
milk products the next day so the body can get rid of the residue milk
leaves in the intestine which limits nutrient intake (Diamond & Diamond,
In conclusion, there are three main reasons why people are overweight
or obese. First, milk and milk products have a element called casein.
Casein causes large curds to form in the human stomach which are hard
for the stomach to eliminate. Casein also forms a coating in the
intestine which prevents nutrients from being absorbed. Poor absorption
causes the body to feel hungry, and want more food and the weight gain
cycle begins (Diamond & Diamond, 1985). This can be overcome by eating
citrus fruit four hours after the milk product. Citrus fruits such
oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and strawberries contain a lot of acid
which is needed to cleanse the system after eating milk products.
Second, overweight or obese people tend usually eat to many fats and
empty calories. This is usually due to eating foods that have not
nutritive value. White sugar and highly refined junk foods supply little
or nothing to keep the body from starving. After a person has eaten a
whole bag of their favorite junk food the body still craves to have a
meal to satisfy its nutritive needs. To lose weight the body needs to
have its needs met. When it is satisfied there are no cravings for junk
foods and sugar. Cravings only continue when there is a vitamin or
mineral deficiency. This also occurs when a person is hooked on
processed white sugar which begins a cycle of eating when not hungry
(Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
Third, The intake of these foods needs to stop by 8 P.M. or earlier
so the assimilation and elimination periods can begin on time. Often
people eat later than this which results in the body cutting elimination
short. Then when people arise and eat a heavy breakfast this results in
elimination cutting off to allow acquisition to start in earnest. This
leaves the body with toxins and waste that it cannot get rid of properly
so it gets stored as fat. When the amount of stored fat and poisons get
out of hand the body is not only overweight or obese but is open to
cancer, arthritis, and many other diseases (Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
If a person wanted to loose weight quickly, s/he could eat fruit and
vegetables in the morning until about an hour before noon. Then for
lunch, at noon, and dinner, at 4 PM, the person could have a normal
servings of foods needed for a well balanced diet with good protein. The
person would probably be hungry about 8 PM. At this time s/he could eat
fruit or vegetables as needed to keep hunger away. When eating is done
in this manner the person is able to have 16 hours of elimination versus
the normal amount of time of just 8 hours used to maintain the same body
weight (Nay, 1998).
Another plan is to eat a snack at 4 PM and then dinner sometime
before 8 PM. The earlier dinner is the longer elimination time is, the
more weight is lost, healthfully.
The body requires good nutrition, daily to function properly. When it
does not get it breaks down its own muscle to get the nutrients it
needs. This is behavior is documented in anorexic people. The body tears
apart the heart and other muscles to get the protein it needs to
continue on until the body is eaten inside out (Diamond & Diamond, 1985;
Balch & Balch; 1991; Nay, 1997).
When the body's needs are met the craving for food is normally gone.
This limits fat intake. Fat intake is reduced to the level needed for
the normal bodily functions to lose weight (Ornish, 1993; Balch & Balch,
1990; Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
It's is necessary to consume at least two tablespoons of
to keep the body working properly. These fats should not be from animal
proteins or their by-products because they are insoluble. Insoluble fats
are difficult to digest and tend to go into long term storage. Vegetable
oils and olive oil are considered soluble fats and are more easily
broken down and used by the body (Ornish, 1993; Bailey, 1991; Diamond &
The amount of
fats and calories a person is intending to eat can be calculated
before they are consumed. Weight can also be reduced by monitoring and
maintaining a certain level of fats and calories for a individual age,
body type, and activity level. An average person should eat 2,000 to
3,000 calories per day. Twenty percent (or 400 to 600 calories) of the
2,000-3,000 calories should be fat to help the body assimilate fat
and produce essential hormones. This is approximately 6-10 grams of fat
(Ornish, 1993; Goor, 1990). Monitoring and maintaining a certain level
of fats and calories is time consuming and sometimes difficult to do.
When people eat the right foods at the proper time people do not have to
monitor the fats and calories. The body monitors fats and calories by
itself by taking what it needs and eliminating the rest. It generally
takes two months to clean the body's system of all the stockpiled
toxins. As this occurs, the stockpile of food storage deposited as
bulges start to break down and are eliminated. People have been
reporting losses of as much as a pound a day (Ornish, 1993; Diamond &
If people are eating appropriately with fruits and vegetables in the
morning, a healthy balance from all the food groups for lunch and
dinner, the body should not be giving out signals that it needs to binge
or needs more food. Fresh foods should replace the processed foods that
cause bingeing. These foods are not only healthy but delicious to most
people, but each person is different physiologically (Ornish, 1993;
Diamond & Diamond, 1985).
For some people, having only fruit or an increased amount of citrus
fruit in the morning may cause diarrhea. Since each persons needs are
different at different times, one should use the information put forward
in this paper as a guide (Nay, 1993). They should also listen to the
needs of their bodies. Often the body will state exactly what it needs.
One needs only to listen (Schwartz, 1985). People must also realize that
no one has all knowledge on this subject not even their doctor (Wallach,
People need to be careful to study out information on health and
nutrition as it pertains to their health generally and them individually
(Nay, 1993). Sometimes the only way people can find out for sure if a
piece of knowledge is right for their bodies, at this time, is to study
it out in their minds and then take it to their Higher Power, in prayer
(Smith, 1981; Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. 1976; Nay,
1993). If the information is true for them at that time then they will
receive a burning of the bosom. This is a warmth in the chest area that
causes the individual to feel the information is good. Sometimes there
is a peace that accompanies this warmth or perhaps the person receives
only the peace and assurance that it is right. If what is asked is
wrong, then there is a stupor of thought which causes the individual to
forget the thing which is wrong. This way people can know the truth of
all things as it applies to them or their family (Smith, 1981; Nay,
Many overweight or obese individuals try dieting without learning
about and changing the problems that they have covered up with the food.
Dieting alone causes the Yo-Yo Effect. This is a cycle where the weight
is taken off and put back on over and over again (Ornish, 1993; Harvard
Medical School, 1992; Schwartz, 1985). Dieting takes the weight off, but
the weight soon returns with more weight is added (Ornish, 1993;
Strict diets can cause depression in predisposed women (Ornish, 1993;
Harvard Medical School, 1992). Generally, ten out of two hundred
individuals ever lose all the weight they set out to lose (Ornish, 1993;
A diet should not be so extreme that it causes malnutrition (Ornish,
1993; Balch & Balch, 1990). Malnutrition is one cause of obesity. When
nutrients are not present in the diet then fats are not easily or
adequately burned. Starvation causes the set point, where the body
begins to burn fats, to be set at a lower set point. This causes fat to
be stored against starvation (Ornish, 1993; Schwartz, 1982).
Exercising regularly causes the set point to burn at a higher level
(Bailey, 1991; Wolman, 1982). This causes more fats to breakdown.
Exercise allows an obese person's body to act like a thin person's body,
in that they can eat almost anything within reason and not gain weight.
Eating excessively causes the body to overwork to process excess fats
and sugars. The body can only do this for so long before it becomes ill
or gives up and breaks down (USDA, 1995; Ornish, 1993; Bailey, 1991;
Balch & Balch, 1990; Davidson, 1990; Carron, 1982; Wolman, 1982; Reid,
1978). Obesity causes a multitude of mental and physical problems for
obese people (USDA, 1995; Bailey, 1991; Balch & Balch, 1990; Davison ,
1990; Carron, 1982; Wolman, 1982; Reid, 1978). Some of these are
depression, overeating, and psychological problems (Balch & Balch,
Other problems are lumbar lordosis-pain and lack of sleep (Carron,
1982). Some get hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes (USDA, 1995;
Davison , 1990) Others have poor circulation, gangrene, and amputation
(Reid, 1978) Many are plagued with kidney trouble, high blood pressure,
pregnancy complications, liver damage, glandular malfunctions, and
malnutrition (Balch & Balch, 1990). Gallbladder disease, colon cancer,
post menopausal breast cancer, and menstrual irregularities afflict
others (Ornish, 1993; USDA, 1995). With all these health problems
besetting obese people there is great likelihood for premature death
Over-weight and obese individuals have limited mobility which leads
to less exercise, more fat being stored, and a greater susceptibility
towards further obesity. Some try to overcompensate by using deprivation
of food. Deprivation in dieting causes depression and possible bingeing.
Instead of deprivation, people should eat balanced smaller meals
(Bailey, 1991). They should listen to what their body is telling them it
needs. This gives people permission to eat with moderation without guilt
(Schwartz, 1985). This is not true for those who are physiologically
addicted to food (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993). These individuals cannot
eat sugar and starches in moderation because they need more and more to
fee normal instead of depressed. Some individuals chose to binge and
purge. If this behavior is continued, will lead to death (Sheppard,
A behavior that tends to cause obesity or overweight people is eating
food too fast. Eating too fast causes people to overeat. This results in
obesity because the food has not had time to reach the stomach to signal
the person that s/he is full. By the time fullness is realized people
have already overeaten (Schwartz, 1985).
The obese make a different type of fat than physically fit people.
They can eat the same amount of fats and calories but it adds up to more
stored fat. A regularly-exercised body treats fat differently than an
unexercised body does. When cholesterol (fat) comes through the blood
stream it enters the liver. The liver wraps strands of protein around
the cholesterol so the body can use it. The fit body's liver grabs the
cholesterol and quickly wraps many strands of protein around it. This
forms HDL or high-density cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is easily used by
the body (Bailey, 1991).
The unfit body's liver is too tired to do much with the cholesterol.
It slowly wraps a few proteins strands around the cholesterol and sends
it back into the blood stream. This cholesterol is called LDL or
low-density cholesterol. LDLs are harder for the body to break down. LDL
cholesterol is hard to get rid of. When the liver is finished with the
cholesterol it sends it back into the blood stream to find a fat storage
There are two enzyme systems within the fat cells; each with a
different job to do. The first is a lypo-genesis enzyme. Its job is to
capture LDLs or HDLs and glue them together so they are too big to get
out of the storage cell. The second type of enzymeis the lypo-lysis. Its
job is to unglue the cholesterol and release it for the body to use for
energy. The exercised body has more lypo-lysis enzyme than lypo-genesis.
The unexercised body has the opposite (Bailey, 1991.
When there are more enzymes binding cholesterol than those releasing
it, the person has a lot of fat deposits. Once stored these deposits are
difficult to release it for use. This is how the fat get fatter and the
thin stay thin even though they eat the same kinds and amounts of foods
Obese or overweight people tend not to do aerobic exercise. The lack
of aerobic exercise makes one more prone to being overweight or obese
(Bailey, 1991). They have no external way to help the body burn fats.
Fat burning exercise must have a sustained level of activity, an
elevated rise in heart rate, and incorporate a large quantity of oxygen.
Without all of these components the fat will not be burned. When a
person cannot breath and carry on a conversation without panting, there
is not enough oxygen in the body for the process of burning fat (Bailey,
The overweight or obese individual may not be exercising long enough
to burn full fats instead of glycogen (Smith, 1988). Glycogen is a
starch that is available to the body for instant energy. As exercise is
sustained for longer periods of time, less glycogen is burned and more
fat is used up. After thirty minutes of aerobic exercise, the body is
burning all fat. Most exercise plans call for a thirty minute workout.
Increasing the workout to forty-five minutes will allow fifteen minutes
of full fat burning and greater weight loss.
High sugar, low or no-fat items cause problems for the obese
consumers who are trying to loose weight (Nay, 1998). Food manufacturers
have created a collection of low or no-fat foods to attract the health
conscious consumer. These misleading foods lead consumers into thinking
that no-fats foods can not hurt them or add weight. These foods
substitute high sugar content to cover for lack of flavor due to the low
or no-fat content.
Besides the fact that sugar changes the stomach's ability to
breakdown foods appropriately due to the sugar causing fermentation,
concentrated amounts of processed sugar has other deleterious affects on
the body. White sugar has no nutritive vale left. White sugar was
distilled from brown sugar. Brown sugar was distilled from molasses.
Molasses came from sugar cane or sugar beets (Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes,
1991). White sugar is an addictive chemical (Sheppard, 1993). Processed
sugars such as white, powdered, brown, molasses, and even honey have had
their chemical bonds broken down between their basic components.
Processed sugars present as a simple potent sugar which is easily and
quickly absorbed by the body.
These sugars causes the body to have a chemical high mentally. It
results in a mood lifting high due to the sugar triggering dopamine to
be released in the mind. Physically, the body has been given a massive
dose of sugar that goes straight into the blood system. It is the bodies
business to keep the body's blood sugar stabilized. The body injects a
massive dose of insulin. Insulin tries to neutralize the sugar by acting
as a downer. The sugars effect on the body is short lived and wears off.
The effect of the insulin has greater staying power. It is there long
after the sugar wears off. This causes another mood swing. This time the
mood is one of depression. Physically the body experiences lethargy.
This usually causes the individual to use sugar to feel better (Whitney,
Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1991).
Continued abuse of the body in this way causes physical and/or mental
problems such diabetes and some bipolar disorders (Whitney, Cataldo, &
The difference between fructose and processed sugars is that fructose
still has its chemical bonds intact. This causes the body to take a
longer period of time to break the different chemical bonds. As the body
dissolves each type is releases a moderate amount of sugar over time.
This gives energy to the body and slightly elevates mood (Whitney,
Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1991).
To get away from sugar craving, or sugar fits, individual's can use
fructose, fruit's natural sugar, to mediate the effects of the processed
sugar or sugar substitutes. Natural sugars are not as potent as the
concentrated processed sugars or sugar substitutes. The lack of
concentrated sweetness causes people to favor processed sugars or sugar
substitutes offer fruit in sweetening food (Nay, 1998: Sheppard 1993).
After extended use of fruit and elimination of processed sugar or
sugar substitutes from the diet, the body becomes more sensitive to the
sweetness or the fruit. The fruits blandness gives way to enhanced
sweetness as the effects of processed sugar dissipates from the body.
The brain will usually register the withdrawal of the concentrated
processed sugars as the fruit having increased in sweetness (Nay, 1998:
The benefits of using fruit instead of processed sugars and sugar
substitutes is that the body does not have to work so hard to control
the mood high's and lows. The body is not addicted to the chemicals in
processed sugar. This causes less chance of overworking the system which
leads to body breakdown and illness (Rememington & Parent, 1983).
Chemical sugar substitutes are not good substitutes for processed
sugar. They, like the processed sugars retard the bodies ability to lose
weight. They stimulate the body's metabolism to crave more sweets (Baker
& Baker, 1987; Rememington & Parent, 1983).
Fruit is a good substitute for the individual recovering from
addictive physiological food behaviors. The different types of sugar
found in fructose or fruit breaks down slowly and does not cause an
extensive rise in the amount of sugar in the body like processed sugar
does. Therefore it curbs the addictive craving for the chemicals that
are broken down from the processed sugar. Since the fructose does not
inject massive amounts of chemicals into the body causing the body to
minimize or shut down production of the body's own chemical sites, in a
round about way fructose encourages the body to manufacture its own
chemicals to help the body fight off depression. This causes the
addicted person to crave more to continue the high. The cravings for
these chemicals are just as intense as if the addicted person had never
quit abusing sugar.
Individuals who's additive behavior to sugar has not physiologically
altered their body can also use fruit to control and conquer sugar
cravings or the withdrawal effects of sugar (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).
Olestra, a sucrose polyester which is not digestible by the body, is
Proctor and Gambles answer to weight conscious consumers who want to eat
their cake, but not have to account for the calories or fat. Since a
sucrose polyester cannot be broken down by the body, Proctor and Gamble
are planning to use in their products so consumers will not be held
accountable for the calories or the fat that results from eating too
many calories. This way the consumer can eat more of their products
without the worry of putting on extra weight. The problem is Olestra has
been shown in many cases to cause great losses of blood carotenoids
which naturally fight cancer, heart disease, and stroke. Daily, the body
makes mutated cells that are considered to be cancerous. The body needs
the blood carotenoids to destroy these faulty cells before a cancerous
mass develops. Olestra also depletes the body of Vitamin A, D, E, and K.
These are vitamins that the body needs to be healthy. Finally, it has a
laxative effect on the body (Julian, 1996).
Generally overweight or obese people do not have enough liquids in
their diet (Schwartz, 1985). The body needs at least eight cups of
liquids each day to carry on the basic functions of the body (Medina,
1992). Any excess liquid helps break down fats. Without the daily
minimum of water, the body has difficulty breaking down the fats in the
diet and still meet the body's other water needs (Medina, 1992). Ten to
twelve cups can literally flush fats from the body (Medina, 1992).
Slow steady weight loss is the best way to take off weight (Callahan
& Perry, 1993). Slow weight loss helps the individuals learn how to keep
their eating under control by learning how to deal with stresses in
healthy ways instead of covering them up with food. These individuals
learn to adapt their diet to help them stay trim the rest of their
lives, not just for the short time they are on the diet. These
individuals generally do not go back to the bad eating habits they had
which led them to obesity and/or addiction (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).
A new eating habits have to replace the old ones in order for an
individual to maintain the weight s/he wants. A person's relationship
with food will take continuous attention the rest of his or her life to
work out. People must always be on guard so they do not to fall back
into old eating patterns (Sheppard, 1993; Wolman, 1982). Some feel they
will be deprived of they control their diet enough to loose weight. The
feeling of deprivation will depend on the individual's attitude. Binge
foods with high sugar or fat content will have to be eliminated. Low fat
and fructose content foods should be adopted for regular consumption
through the individual's life for weight lose, maintenance, and good
health. Physiological food addicted people should give up wheat products
and food with any type of sugar for their entire lives. For the food
abuser, consumption of binge foods will be discontinued until the weight
goal is achieved. Thereafter binge foods will be regulated to maintain
the weight loss (Sheppard, 1993; Davison, 1990).
For some people eating healthy foods like fruit is not healthy
because it cause his or her psychological food addicted behaviors to
manifest themselves. It may also be true that the psychological addict,
under the care of a live-in facility, may be able to detox his or her
body with fruit, eat appropriate food combinations and have the body
begin once again to take care of itself while psychotropic drugs are
experimented with to find the correct dosage to control the person's
depression. This is highly speculative but a hope for the physiological
food addicted (Nay, 1997).
Fat and sugar intake is related to weight loss. Excess fat and sugar
is what makes people fat (Deutsch, 1971). Consumer advocates have made
food manufactures list the fat and sugar content of their products on
their labels. Labels must be read to learn the fat, sugar and calorie
content. There are other ingredients that are in our foods such as
preservatives and other chemicals that are really not good for us (Nay,
1998; Sheppard, 1993).
Most people eat too many
fats. To help
loose weight individuals must cut out excessive fats. Fats should
constitute only twenty-one percent to thirty percent of all calories in
the diet (Dunne, 1990; Goor, 1990). This fat is needed to carry vitamins
and energy needed for basic body functions like heart rate, respiration,
body temperature, and repair of the body (Dunne, 1990; Goor, 1990). Fats
should be unsaturated vegetable fats not saturated animal fats (Dunne,
1990). No matter what the content of fat is in foods consumption should
stop when the body is satiated (Schwartz, 1985).
There are a variety of low fat meats available. Baked skinless breast
of chicken or turkey, luncheon meats such as turkey ham and turkey (95%
or more fat free); extra lean hamburger, tuna in water, and different
types of baked fish are good examples of meats that can be incorporated
into a low-fat diet. Meat should be used in the diet as a condiment not
the main course of the meal (Nay, 1998).
Most fruits and vegetables contain little or no fats. People can eat
their fill of vegetables without being troubled with the fat or sugar
content. (Mayo Clinic Committee, 1966). However, caution must be used in
consumption of too much fruits. Eating more that is needed to stave off
hunger will lead to weight-gain. Some fruits have high sugar content,
and in the case of the avocado, a high fat content.
Wheat is one of the best sources of protein for most individuals. It
stays with the body longer than processed white flour and keeps a person
fuller with less fat than that of a lot of the other proteins. White
flour is a derivative of wheat but has had most of the beneficial
vitamins and protein removed through processing (Deutsch, 1971). Some
bread manufactures try to replace the vitamin loss by adding vitamins to
their produce. This does help, but white bread does not take long to
break down and is soon gone leaving the individual hungry again. This is
due to processing breaking down the molecules of the wheat so the body
does not have to do much work to use it up (Deutsch, 1971). Wheat and
processed flour triggers chemical's in the brain which when continually
over stimulated can cause food addiction. Therefore, wheat and processed
flour should not be used to an excess by people who are physiologically
addicted (Nay, 1998; Sheppard, 1993).
Individuals that enjoy eggs in their diets must understand that the
yolk of the egg is very fatty (Casale, 1975). If a person wants to have
eggs they can substitute such products as Egg Beaters or products with
only egg whites (Nay, 1998). Powdered egg white is also available for
baking needs (Casale, 1975).
Low-fat food can gradually replace the full fat ones. This switch
should be done gradually, an item at a time, without telling anyone in
the residents. Healthy eating can become a way of life for everyone in
the household. Some low-fat foods do not taste good. Learn what low-fat
foods are liked and use them. Those that are not liked should be
skipped. If those in the household are made to eat a diet of all low-fat
foods, including the ones they do not like, they will come to associate
low-fat foods with no flavor and will refuse to eat any of them (Nay,
1998, Sheppard, 1993).
People must conscientiously put flavor back into the recipes they
have removed by reducing the sugar and/or fat content. For those that
can have fruit in their diet, fresh fruit juices, or fruit chunks such
as pineapple chunks or raisins can be added instead of sugar. Fresh
fruit can add flavor to a lot of recipes. Fats and sour cream can be
replaced with plain yogurt or water and still have the same effect of
lending moisture and flavor to the recipe. Switching over to low-fat and
lowered sugar content in foods will be healthier for everyone (Nay,
1993; Sheppard, 1993; Mycoskie, 1994).
One should train the body to eat in the morning instead of waiting
until brunch. Waiting causes overeating, because there is a tendency to
eat quickly to satisfy the hunger. In doing so the person is not
cognizant of when hunger is satisfied as most of the food has not
reached the stomach. Until the main meal is prepared, excessive hunger
can be stifled by eating a small snack that is low fat, non-processed
sugar item like fresh fruit (Spilner & Stanten, 1996).
Meal preparation time should not be any longer that fifteen minutes
from the onset of hunger or a fruit or vegetable should be eaten to keep
a person from piecing on the food as it is prepared. The desire to eat
causes people to eat a meal's worth of food while preparing the meal.
When the meal is finally prepared there is a tendency to eat that food
Major cooking preparations can be done ahead of the time the food is
needed. The precooked food can be stored in bulk or dinner-size amounts
in the freezer. For example, several chicken breasts can be baked at
once with one's favorite spices or just plain. Skinless chicken breasts
are to be used to cut down on the higher fat content that the brown meat
and the skin of the chicken. After baking the chicken should be cooled
to room temperature, then put it into freezer bags and frozen (Nay,
A weeks worth of potatoes can be oven baked with the chicken. The
potatoes and chicken are finished cooking at the same time. The potatoes
can be refrigerated until needed. In less than five minutes a cold
potato can be quickly reheated in the microwave or pan-fried without
grease for hash-browns. Putting together a salad, vegetable, and
chicken, one has a complete meal (Nay, 1998).
Extra pasta can be cooked and stored for later. It should be rinsed,
stirred, and drained to get out the starch. Starch causes the noodles to
cling together. Do not use oil on the noodles, this adds to the fat
content. If fat has not been part of the diet for the day then add olive
oil or vegetable oils to keep the body lubricated. Extra pasta can be
packed in meal-sized pieced and frozen. When hunger strikes, the frozen
pasta can be cooked in the microwave until almost cooked. At that time a
flavorful tomato sauce can be added on top of the pasta to be warmed. A
spaghetti dinner takes less than less than five minutes, when done in
this manner. The physiologically addicted person will have to check the
labels on the tomato sauce. Most tomato sauces have sugar in them (Nay,
People must stop eating when they are satiated. Satiation can best be
judged by placing proper portions of food on the plate, eating
leisurely, tasting each mouthful until the hunger seems to be gone. Then
it is difficult to tell of hunger is gone, take two more bites and stop
eating whether the whole plate full of food is gone or not. When hunger
is not present, people must learn to push themselves away from the table
and put the food away or dispose of it (Schwartz, 1985). If a person
does not have the ability to know when s/he is satiated due to a
malfunctioning thyroid, the person will have to use normal servings kept
to the correct size by measuring with a measuring cup (Nay 1998).
Some people find themselves waiting for hunger to happen so they can
have a special meal they have planned. This is all right, as long as
they are not obsessing over it (Schwartz, 1985).
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